Judgment at Nuremberg is a 1961 American drama film directed by Stanley Kramer, written by Abby Mann and starring Spencer Tracy, Burt Lancaster, Richard Widmark, Maximilian Schell, Werner Klemperer, Marlene Dietrich, Judy Garland, William Shatner and Montgomery Clift. Set in Nuremberg in 1948, the film centers on a military tribunal led by Chief Trial Judge Dan Haywood (Tracy), before which four German judges and prosecutors stand accused of crimes against humanity for their involvement in atrocities committed under the Nazi regime. The film deals with non-combatant war crimes against a civilian population (i.e., crimes committed in violation of the Law of Nations or the Laws of War), the Holocaust, and with post-World War II geopolitical complexity of the Nuremberg Trials. This was because crucially, in both the film, and in historical fact; the atrocities committed were in fact not performed only by Hitler; his political cronies, henchmen, and para-military Storm Troopers. They were done (at Hitler’s direction, of course) by well-respected institutional leaders of German society; and by leaders in the other societies in German occupied Europe, where those leaders, readily agreed, acquiesced and enthusiastically cooperated with, in this aspect of the Hitler regime in Germany, and in German occupied territory, during the war. An earlier version of the story was broadcast as a television episode of Playhouse 90. Schell and Klemperer played the same roles in both productions.
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